Streszczenia artykułów (eng.)

EDUKACJA SZKOLNA W ZMIANACH?
 ZMIANY W EDUKACJI SZKOLNEJ?
PROBLEMATYZOWANIE PROBLEMÓW

CHANGES OF SCHOOL EDUCATION? CHANGES IN SCHOOL EDUCATION?
PROBLEMATISE PROBLEMS

Maria Dudzikowa, Dlaczego problematyzowanie problemów? Wprowadzenie
Title: Why problematise problems? Introduction
Abstract: The text is an introduction to the volume that is an attempt at addressing the public sphere with issues referring to changes in Polish school education. Linked to the reform of education and other social processes that Polish schools experience, the changes are of various types – from constructive to destructive ones. The author outlines the aims of the publication, defines its basic categories and refers to the ideas that lie behind the research (carried out by the members of the School Pedagogy Team at KNP PAN)

Sylwia Jaskulska, Mapa problemów
Title: Map of problems
Abstract: In the text I present the volume structure and aims. I refer to the categories through which we analyse school education and changes that occur in it. I summarise the theses of particular authors and indicate common views that they share.

Inetta Nowosad, Od zmian w szkole do zmiany szkoły. O potrzebie integralnego podejścia do zmian w edukacji szkolnej
Title: From Changes in School to the Change of School. On the Need of Integral Approach to Changes in Education
Abstract: The paper has been brought to light the category of change. It appears to be placed among the few categories whose understanding is of key importance in the process of reconstruction of school and in the search for vital strengths of educational institutions as such. Therefore, the question of ‚school renewal’ has been undertaken in the paper. It indicates two major strategies for the implementation of changes ( top-down and bottom-up) as well as for their evaluation. The systemic approach nested in the logics of statements also leads to certain conclusions, as well as to the need of elaboration of an integral approach, in which the balance of division of tensions between centralisation and decentralisation will be identified. Nevertheless, the question concerning the exact positioning of the category of change still remains unanswered.

Dorota Klus-Stańska, Dlaczego szkolna kultura dydaktyczna się nie zmienia?
Title: Why is school teaching culture not changing?
Abstract: This text tries to interpret the main reasons of inertia within the existing model of teaching in Polish schools. First, the Author defines the notion of school teaching culture as well as the mechanisms responsible for internalization of the culture patterns that can “hide” them from a conscious critical reflection. Then, she identifies the models of pedagogical thinking which contribute to immobility of the school teaching culture and its resistance against an initiated change. The tool used in the identification comprises a set of lesson observations conducted in Polish and British schools. The material is used to present a contrast in cultural patterns and thus it serves to question the “obviousness” of what is happening during lessons in Polish schools

Maria Groenwald, Wpływ procesów endogenicznych i egzogenicznych na edukację. Przypadek egzaminów szkolnych
Title: Impact of endogenous and exogenous processes on education. The case of school examinations
Abstract: The process of changes occurring in education has been depicted here as „a product” of „factors” (forces) simultaneously impacting on it. Classifying these factors on the basis of their origin led to recognition of processes which either derive from the “inside” of education (endogenous ones) or are initiated beyond it, that is factors exterior to education (exogenous ones). These opposite forces can – depending on the intensity of each of them: (1) foster constructive educational changes; (2) feign or eliminate such changes and create the impression of educational stagnation; (3) deform the process of education and its participants’ personalities. The case of school examination is referred to as (one possible) exemplification of endogenous and exogenous forces struggling with each other in the educational sphere; additionally, the consequences of introducing these examinations to the process of learning and upbringing have been presented.

Joanna Szewczyk – Kowalczyk, Mistyfikacja codzienności szkolnej, czyli refleksji kilka o common sense szkoły
Title: Mystification of everyday life at school, or school of common sense;
Abstract: As I prepared to describe the apparent publication, fraudulent nature of common sense (Geertz category) in thinking about modern education, teaching  and school culture. To do this, I wonder first of all, that we commonly use reinforcing clarifying sense calling it the
most healthy. Does sense may not be „healthy”? What might be other adjectives to describe them? Stupid, unpredictable, crazy? No. It is the usually: cool, peasant, practical, sober, cold. Used interchangeably with: prudence, reason.
Therefore in the first part I describe the world of common sense, everyday thoughts, knowledge of the community? What are the features? Speaking purely theoretically, so  in the next section I can indicate the complete lack of reference to education and educational realities of today’s schools. Analysis of individual components are intended to indicate the paradox in metaphorical sense. Reveal the contradictions visible to the naked eye and  hidden under the surface deep enough not to discussed them. Oxymoron „sick sense”,  seems most adequate for this analysis.

Krzysztof Jaworski, Między realnością, a pozorem – spojrzenie na ewaluacją zewnętrzną szkoły
Title: Between reality and appearance- the look at external evaluation of school
Abstract: The article “Between reality and appearance- the look at external evaluation of school ” is the result of the author’s reflection on the external evaluation procedure conducted at school he works in as a teacher. The article presents the consecutive stages of this process and subjects them to critical scrutiny. Furthermore, it attempts to answer the questions which arose during and straight after the evaluation. The final outcomes of the procedure are introduced with reference to the author’s everyday teacher experience.

Marek Mencel, Badania (badacz) w szkole – potrzeba, nobilitacja, czy zachwianie równowagi (dobrego samopoczucia badacza i szkoły)
Title: Research (researcher) at school – need, honour or upsetting the balance (of the well-being of the researcher and school)
Abstract: In the text the author considers the difficulties that a teacher with academic aspirations may face. The author analyses her own professional and academic experience, asks about the sense in conducting research at school if research results do not change school practices

Ewa Lubina, Szkoła pod presją mody na kształcenie zdalne – co z tego wynika?
Title: The school under the pressure of e-learning – what results from it?
Abstract: E-learning has become very important in the education market nowadays. His status is no longer controversial. Many people have already gained experience of training through the Internet. We deal with the change habits and expectations of learners. Education system at school raises its status in the educational environment. Schools try to put into practice educational technologies. Often we can observe lack of cohesion between technology and teach methodology. It provokes reflection about usage teach technology in E-learning which is limited to gain possession of theoretical knowledge and demonstrate its possession.

Alicja Korzeniecka, Bondar, Czas na pozór…
Title: Seemingly valuable time
Abstract: Time is a category which unables us to analyze school operation in different dimensions and reveal its ostensible activities. This category will be used in my article to reveal some of the instances of semblance in education. On the basis of the situation in Polish schools, I will try to answer the question: is it possible to introduce changes in a school system, if a significant amount of time in this institution is „empty” and has seeming importance for the educational development of students? In order to do this, contemporary transitions in the understanding of time need to be presented. Therefore, the article consists of sections regarding the following: contemporary understanding of time, analysis of structural management of time, seemingly valuable time spent in school and possible options for change introduction in schools.

Sylwia Jaskulska, Ocenianie zachowania na stopień w szkole. Między polem szkoły a ministerialnym
Title: Marking behaviour at school. Between the field of a school and the ministry
Abstract: In the text I pose a question about the point of marking students’ behaviour. I analyse the results of my own research, as well as ministerial orders and press news. I apply the category of “field” by Pierre Bourdieu. I propose a thesis that the area that is formed at the intersection of the ministerial and school fields is full of tension, the logic behind each field is different and marking behaviour becomes a game of illusions.

Karina Knasiecka-Falbierska, Wyścig szczurów (rzecz o segregacji w szkole)
Title: The rat race (The thing about school segregation?)
Abstract: This discussion paper presents an analysis of the Polish pupil’s vision of what makes school good. Nowadays, the main aim of the education reform in Poland is to create school system, which is “pupils-friendly” and “equalizing opportunities” for children from varied background. Does this vision corresponds with the needs of all pupils (e.g. the “privileged” ones)? Some of them claim the different direction of educational reforms. They expect to gather such a school experience, that stimulates their individual development (enables higher and higher competence level). The modern pupil’s vision of school is based on consent to selection and segregation by school achievements (streaming system). They do not want equal opportunities for everyone and do accept participation in the rat race for marks. Moreover, they believe that competition provides proper position in neoliberal world order.

Renata Wawrzyniak-Beszterda, Zmiana strukturalna czy organizacyjna? Głos w sprawie zmarnowanej szansy
Title: Structural or organizational change? A voice in the case of dissipated chance
Abstract: Polish education reform’s priority in 1999 was structural change of the whole system. From this year onward 3-year gymnasium was introduced as the level between 6-year primary school and 3-year medium school (high school). Such structural changes were promoted to uplift educational chances of the youth originated from, generally speaking, environments characterized by low cultural capital and in the same process to upgrade the quality of the education.
My main thesis concluded in the presented paper  is that above mentioned structural changes of the Polish education introduced in 1999 were mainly of organizational character, because gymnasium level did not bring any expected qualities to the whole system. Statements included in the paper are based on studies on school experiences of the pupils and I show that in this light there are no differences between lessons in primary school and gymnasium.

Anna Wiłkomirska, Awans zawodowy nauczycieli – „brzydkie kaczątko” reformy edukacji
Title: The teachers’ professional promotion – “ugly duckling” of education system reform
Abstract: New system of teachers’ professional promotion in Poland has been in place for more than 10 years. It has been amended a few times. It is worth assessing by posing several important questions: Does the current system (of teachers’ career path) meet the aims which were assigned to it? Can one observe the teachers’ professional development in the sense of increase in professional qualification and competences, and their knowledge broadening?
Is and to what extent the above mentioned development reflected in quality of school functioning?
It is difficult to answer these questions, as up to now there has been no reliable, independent scientific research on the system of teachers’ promotion in Poland. However the above mentioned questions have been answered on the basis of NIK Supreme Chamber of Control report and on the research titled “ Professional Satisfaction of Teachers “.
The most significant shortages and the proposals for their improvement have been indicated. The most important of them seem to be streamlining and reducing the red tape, shifting the procedures concerning professional promotion to school. Such a move would be aimed at harmonization the efforts of teachers applying for higher position with needs of  school. It would be more advantageous for students and visible in everyday school work.

Agnieszka Nowak-Łojewska, Nauczyciel „konserwa”(?) – odporny na zmianę relikt w skansenowej szkole
Title: A ”stick-in-the-mud” teacher  – a relic in antiquated school resistant to changes
Abstract: The article deals with the teacher and focuses on two issues: What do teachers think of themselves and how do they perceive their role in working with children?, and  How do teachers understand students and education through the prism of their meanings given by teachers?
The answers to the first question were supported by the results of phenomenographic  research, which resulted in the emergence of several concepts of the early education teacher. The other problem was analysed in the context of the assumptions of symbolic interactionism. In this way the interaction between the methods of giving meanings by teachers, and reading reality and then transmitting it in students’ thinking was recognised.
The text consists of several parts. Part one is a brief description of the study. Part two illustrates the categories of description, that is teachers’ concepts of meanings, selected in the course of the research. The final part interprets the research results in the context of the assumptions of symbolic interactionism. It also presents trends in teachers’ thinking of  themselves.

Ewa Bochno, Zaufanie jako kłopotliwe zobowiązanie nauczyciela. Pytanie z autorytetem w tle
Title: Trust as an embarrassing obligation of a teacher. Based on an authority figure.
Abstract: Based on the results obtained by a team lead by professor Maria Dudzikowa, I will try to answer the question: is trust, which develops between a student and a teacher, an obligation which builds up the relation or rather restricts it? Furthermore, how is the experience of trust changing on subsequent learning stages and how does it reflect the changes in school?
The proposed questions arose firstly as a result of the commitment or a responsibility of performing an action that can be an asset or a barrier in the way of mutual relation between a student and a teacher. Secondly, as a result of the trust, which Maria Dudzikowa consistently emphasises in her works as an element of the authority figure of a teacher as well as the creation of a teacher-student learning environment. This trust is a type of commitment which is a part of the teacher-student relationship. This means that trust is a necessary condition for the independence of the community and the authority of a teacher. This issues, seen in the context of everyday school life, are the main topic of this work.

Marzena Nowicka, Zgoda na opór dzieci jako obszar potencjalnej zmiany w klasach początkowych
Title: Consent to children’s resistance as the area of a potential change in early school education
Abstract: Children’s resistance to teachers’ authority is a source of tensions in communication processes that occur during school lessons and it evokes teachers’ anxiety and aversion. It can also be viewed as a way of expressing pupil’s attitude to existing reality and as an excellent starting point for the process of developing self-awareness and self-creation. The article presents a number of types of pupils’ resistance to teacher’s power position occurring in the process of socializing younger pupils in the school context. The paper pays close attention to the kind of resistance that is called ‘going out of the role’. It challenges teacher’s power position during the school lessons and enables the pupil to elaborate the effective strategy of emancipator  behaviour which can be useful in various social relations.

Monika Wiśniewska-Kin, Z obawy przed zmianą  – o konstytuowaniu podstawowych pojęć wyznaczających sens życia w podręczniku i myśleniu dzieci
Title: The existential concepts in children’s thinking and school textbooks
Abstract: The subject of the research was the image of the world reflected in children’s verbal expression and in school textbooks. The main question was whether and how textbooks should be changed as a result of comparing their image of the world with the current way of children’s understanding and thinking. In order to conduct the comparative analysis:
– the research was oriented with the existential concept
– the critical-emancipatory approach was applied
– the categories of children expressions as well as texts in books were defined.
The results of the research formed a basis for constructing a list of differences between the school’s and children’s image of the world.

Magdalena Grochowalska, Przekonania nauczycieli na temat sposobów działania w zmieniającej się edukacji wczesnoszkolnej. Raport z badań
Title: Teachers’ beliefs related to the methods of operation in the changing early school education. Report on investigations
Abstract: The modification to the system of education is interpreted  in different ways according to the context in which it is perceived. In this article I make an attempt to describe the meaning attributed by teachers to the change related to decrease the age at which the school obligation should be started as postulated by lawmakers. This issue is presented by making reference to my own investigations.
The interpretative perspective for analyzing teachers’ beliefs is the category of development isonomy. From this angle, I will analyze the sources of knowledge, concepts, decisions and actions taken up by teachers. The category of isonomy will serve for describing the way of abandoning the limitations one has realized.

Agnieszka Sojka, Małgorzata Tulik-Hamelak, Nauczyciel między misja a realizacją programu
Title: A teacher between a mission and a programme realization.
Abstract: This article refers to contemporary education problems understood as a financial market and it refers to the main changes implemented by MEN producing competitiveness both among teachers and students. The authors quoting teacher’s conception – as a life guide – show us nonsenese of today’s so called „quality school” which is given a title on the base of skills level and student’s knowledge. So, as the authors say – the clever students’ group create „quality school” and also create a teacher like this, but the incompetent group create a low-level school with incompetent teachers in the background.
The potential and student’s capability do not make any standards in this precedent.
According to authors -the control became an obsession of present education which leads to a complete change of teacher’s duty. The research conducted by one of the author answer the questions: who is a present teacher and how does he/she perceive himself/herself? The authors consider – what is the sense and meaning of a notion: „upgringing” and „teacher”.

Bożena Tołwińska, Proaktywność i synergia w kulturze szkoły
Title: Proactivity and synergy in school culture
Abstract: The following constitutes merely a short reflection, drew on the basis of my own observations and analysis of literature, namely that school not only should, but it can, it has the chance to be a place where pupils are taught the pro-active and synergic approach, essential in today’s world. Everyday learning situations, both those intentionally arranged by teachers and those emerging spontaneously between pupils and between teachers and school principals, form the basis of the said approach and should be used to encourage it.
Pro-active approach is the ability to act, to choose the way we react to events, it is the ability to introduce change, focus on the matters we can control, in contrast to those we cannot, it is initiative and responsibility for everything that happens in our environment. However, studies have shown that school culture involves a substantial number of actions which reinforce the reactive approach among pupils. The organization of school life gives the student experience of submissiveness and helplessness and the belief that they cannot control the life they participate in.
Synergy means making a contribution to the community, understanding that being a part of society requires co-dependance, it means being involved in actions for the benefit of others, actions based on mutual trust and belief that thanks to cooperation we can gain more , as we make use of our common resources. Contemporary culture promotes other values (compete with others, be the best at all costs, be original). Free-market ideology presents human being as an individual competing with others in order to protect his own good. Extreme concentration on benefits destroys the sense of solidarity with others and the willingness to engage in activities for the common good. Education, which follows this ideology, creates the consumer approach in a pupil instead of the approach of a citizen who thinks independently and is interested in the community he belongs to.

Elżbieta Płóciennik, Mistyfikacja działań innowacyjnych na przykładzie przypadków łódzkich nauczycieli przedszkoli
Title: Mystification of innovative actions – cases in Lodz
Abstract: “To be… the Innovator… or not to be…” – many teachers ask this question nowadays. Taking into account a huge interest of pedagogical innovations it is very important to recognize appropriate conditions, adequate preparation and local approach for modification and reforms,  in pre-school education too. The rather that to change some spaces of nursery school’s organization isn’t easy and efficient, and not always is appreciated in the opinion of the teachers-innovators taking part in described research. It requires a lot of extra work, commitment and responsible performance and…. is noticed for external supervisors rarely. Such findings are presented in this article.

Małgorzata Makiewicz, Matematyka – nasza niedostrzegalna kultura
Title: Mathematics – our indiscernible culture
Abstract: Mathematical culture, which was built for ages on the foundations of Greek culture, does not relate to a certain technique, skill or the ability of using  formal language in the process of proving and solving problems.  What mathematical culture embraces is also creativity and ingenuity, appropriate understanding of certain ideas as well as perceiving beauty and the usefulness of this discipline at the same time.  Also, the already mentioned mathematical culture consists in the ability of discerning some mathematical ideas, schemes and problems in the world that surrounds us.
The aim of this text is to demonstrate certain values which can be treasured through teaching mathematics.  Since they are universal and timeless, they are not prone to being affected by the consecutive reforms in education, nor new social and political outlooks.  These values, though not related directly to the particular mathematical knowledge, concern the hitherto mentioned knowledge.  They demonstrate how the mind of the mathematical-cultural man becomes beautiful.  However, a certain conflict arises when it comes to the confrontation of the purpose of endowing the student with the elements of mathematical culture as opposed to the school reality  which involves the necessity of executing the student’s knowledge and his skills.  On the one hand, our aims are focused on providing the graduate of the secondary school with the tools to synthesise, analyse and disregard the information so that he was able to reason on the basis of conjecture and critically verify the hypotheses, whereas on the other hand, we expect him to achieve high marks in the final exams or high classification in the rankings. In this article I would like to present a proposal of the change of the commonplace style of teaching mathematics which consists in departing from a schematic execution of knowledge (which is based on reciting definitions, theorems, solving tests and settling problems in a schematic way) to the one in favour of mathematical culture education.